File Organization in DBMS

A large amount of data can be stored in a database. Each table has related records. Data is organized in RDBMS into tables. Although it is obvious that the data is stored as tables, in reality this enormous amount of data is actually stored in physical memory as files.

FILE -A file is a collection of related information, which is stored on secondary storage like magnetic disks and magnetic tables.

What is File Organization?

File Organization refers specifically to the logical relationships between the various files that make up the file. It is especially important in relation to access and identification. is simply the act of storing files in a certain order.

File Structure Refers to the format of data blocks and labels, as well as any logical control records.

Types of file organizations

There are many ways to organize files. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages depending on whether they are easy to access or difficult to select. It is up to the programmer to choose the most suitable file Organization method to meet his needs.
There are several types of File Organizations:

Sequential File Organization
Heap File Organization
Hash File Organization
B+ Tree File Organization
Clustered File Organization

In this article, we will discuss each of the file Organizations and their advantages and disadvantages.

Sequential File Organization

The Sequential method is the best method to organize files. This method stores the files sequentially, one after another. This method can be implemented in two ways:

Pile File Method This is a simple method that stores the records in a sequential order, i.e. one after another in the same order they were inserted into the tables.

Insertion of a new record

Let R1, R3, and so on, up to R5 and R4, be the four records in the sequence. Records are simply a row in any table. Let’s say that R2 is a new record to be added to the sequence. Then it is placed at the end.
Sorted File Method -This method is based on the fact that every new record must be inserted. It is always done in an ascending or descending order. You can sort records based on any primary or secondary key.

Insertion of new record –

Let us assume that there is a preexisting sorted sequence of four records R1, R3, and so on upto R7 and R8. Suppose a new record R2 has to be inserted in the sequence, then it will be inserted at the end of the file and then it will sort the sequence .

The Pros and Cons Of Sequential File Organization

Pros -

Rapid and efficient way to access large amounts of data.
Simple design.
Magnetic tapes are a cheaper way to store files.


It is a waste of time because we can’t jump on the required record, but we must move in a sequence that takes our time.
The sorted file method is inefficient because it requires time and space to sort records.

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